What is Rhetoric

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What is Rhetoric


Rhetoric (वाक्य पटुता, वाग्मिता, भाषण-कौशल) is an Art of Speaking effectively, writing effectively. It is the art of argumentation (तर्क-वितर्क). It teaches how to express the ideas impressively. It helps to improve the capability of writers or speakers. With the help of it a person can motivate his audience.

Elements (तत्व) of Rhetoric-

There are five elements of Rhetoric (to express our ideas in writing or speaking).

  1. Action/Delivery (प्रतिवादन, देना)
  2. Invention
  3. Memory
  4. Style
  5. Presentation

1-   Action/Delivery-

This is the very important element of rhetoric. By using of it one can make his sentence brief, clear and effective. According this element, speech or writing should have proper flow (प्रवाह), reason and motion (गति). Let’s see the use of action or delivery element- There are three sentences. We will combine these sentences into one with the use of action or delivery element.

For example-

Histories make men wise. Poetry makes men witty. The Mathematics makes men subtle (सूक्ष्म, गूढ़, तेज).

Histories make men wise; poetry witty and the mathematics subtle.

2-    Invention-

It means you have to invent your own words and sentences. Express your ideas originally. It should be originality in you. The use of different words can draw picture in the minds of listeners or readers. Let’s see with an example-

There is no joy now in life.

Out of day and night, A joy has taken flight.

3-   Memory-

The writer or speaker should use of his memory to remember words of speech. He should memorise words, quotes and other facts. He can use examples to remember words of speech. Let’s understand with the use of an example-

Thus, nature speak imaginary the work was done. Here work means the work of bringing up Lucy and building and moulding (ढालना) her character.

4-   Style-

The writer or speaker should make his idea interesting by using figures of speech and other rhetorical techniques. Use of rhythm, imagery, metaphor, etc. makes the writing attractive to the reader.

For example- 

Lightly, O lightly, we bear her along

She sways like a flower in the wind of our song

The smooth flow and rhythm (ताल, लय) in the above sentence produce a musical effect and the reader is forced to read it entirely.

5-   Presentation-

It is an art to present our ideas before others. A poet or a writer should choose such words and arrange them in proper order so that the reader or listener should be impressed. Let’s see with an example-

There is widespread bloodshed in the battle.

Rivers of blood flowed in the battle.

This type of presentation pleases our ears and we are eager to read it.

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